Empirical evidence on the impact of intellectual property (IP) on research and development (R&D) in the genetic and genomic-related life sciences is thin and under-analyzed. At the global level, even the most basic data are lacking in all but a few technical areas. InSTePP research is creating a systematic and comprehensive body of international patent data in this area as a basis for assessing the innovation and economic consequences of these patents. An important dimension of the work is to quantify and examine the evolving IP landscape pertaining to the life sciences, including the changing structure and links among national IP markets. This program of research also addresses a range of critical and interrelated innovation incentive issues including: links between IP ownership and use, implications for generating and accessing key technologies, and types of licenses and institutional arrangements effective at disseminating different types of technologies.